Deontic logic provides the lexicon and inference rules for any moral judgment, be it deontological or utilitarian. You can turn the trolley onto it, and thus save the five men on the straight track ahead.
The key difference between these signs is the amount of discretion that they give to the driver. They argue that it is a mistake to treat whole classes of actions as right or wrong because the effects of actions differ when they are done in different contexts and morality must focus on the likely effects of individual actions.
When we ask whether a rule should be adopted, it is essential to consider the impact of the rule on all people and to weigh the interests of everyone equally. John demands that his son be brought to the emergency room. A cost benefit analysis is done to assess the issue and determine how well, or how poorly, a planned action will turn out.
In Johns case, the positive factor would be saving his sons life.
If I went up to every person on campus and ripped the cigarette out of his or her mouth, I would probably get into many fights and arguments, and will likely cause suffering for the people I violated. Following that logic, it is natural to say that favoring those who are able to pay for treatment is in a way rewarding their perceived social usefulness.
Our research question is this: how do descriptions become norms?