Appeals to authority also conflict with the basic tenet of good logical and critical thinking which calls upon us to take responsibility for evaluating the grounds for our beliefs. An argument is a non sequitur if the conclusion does not follow from the premise.
An example: "The government should not prohibit drugs. Like appeals to popularity except the appeal is to how long something has been believed, rather than to the number of people who have believed it People have believed in astrology for a very long time, therefore, it must be true.
Note: When we describe someone as ignorant, we often mean it as an insult. This would be an example of a red herring since whether religions can have a positive effect on people is irrelevant to the question of the existence of God.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc literally, "after this, therefore because of this" Inferring that X must be the cause of Y just because X is followed by Y. An emotional appeal that overlooks the facts of a case. Therefore, 3.
For our purposes, we will focus on formal and informal fallacies. A positive message from the Strawman: the importance of being charitable.