Freud says, "It is thus the task of the dramatist to transport us into the same illness. Mercifully, the biographical question of quite why Shakespeare should have developed such a view before writing Hamlet in or just after is beyond the scope of this book.
Once the persona has been admitted as the currency of moral virtue, then public recognition or acceptance determines how that virtue is to be valued.
By revealing that even Hamlet, discontent as he is with the prevailing moral order, is bound by cultural circumstance to use his intelligence as his accomplice rather than his guide, Shakespeare discloses something of the plight faced by every inhabitant of his Danish playworld.
Each of these three chapters is concerned more with what Hamlet says than with what he does.
To speak in such terms is to get an inkling of just how exhilaratingly difficult a play Hamlet can be: apprehending it in even an approximation of its full complexity demands stereoscopic vision, and comprehending it demands the patience to explore it in the formal, cultural, intellectual, and historical round.
Some scholars have observed that revenge tragedies come from Catholic countries like Italy and Spain, where the revenge tragedies present contradictions of motives, since according to Catholic doctrine the duty to God and family precedes civil justice. Gertrude collapses and, claiming she has been poisoned, dies.
He concludes, "The Oedipus complex is a misnomer. He waits until the very last minute to take a course of action. Though he is able to pass himself off as insane in order to elude the surveillance of the court, he cannot bring himself to adulterate the role of the vengeful son. When Ophelia enters and tries to return Hamlet's things, Hamlet accuses her of immodesty and cries "get thee to a nunnery", though it is unclear whether this, too, is a show of madness or genuine distress.
He has difficulty expressing himself directly and instead blunts the thrust of his thought with wordplay.