Availability of articles: Studies were excluded if all available means were exhausted in locating the full article, that included electronic search, hand search, direct communication with the author or requisition from the British Library Open in a separate window Search outcome There were located references; 6 duplicates, 79 excluded studies see supporting information Table S2 in the online version of the article in Wiley Online Library and 82 relevant references — five systematic reviews all four Cochrane Reviews, Eustice et al.
This can include things such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, walking, lifting, or playing sport. Specialist continence nurses have the ability to undertake initial assessment and management of continence-related issues, as well as assume a case coordinator role.
Inclusion criteria Empirical studies of the management of incontinence, promotion of continence or maintenance of continence in older people aged 65 years and above in care homes were located. Incontinence associated with chronic retention can cause serious damage to the bladder and kidneys and should always be treated and monitored by a continence professional.
Wear disposable gloves. Evidence on the effect of educational programs alone suggests an immediate impact, but there are limited data on sustainability of changes in practice or alterations in attitude.
Although nurses have the potential to improve patient outcomes, continence care is not always a priority and many nurses lack the educational preparation and understanding of continence-related issues to deliver high-quality care. Published data reveal that the proportion of persons with UI who express a felt need for care is far below the proportion of people with the condition; the same is also true for FI.
The effectiveness of using educational materials, educational meetings, reminders and audit and feedback on improving clinical outcomes in various combinations and with other knowledge translation interventions has been proven.
Urinary infections can cause or worsen incontinence. Although not all advanced practice nurses have in-depth knowledge of continence care, 36 those with additional preparation in the specialty can effectively extend the services provided through nursing. Find out more by visiting the New Zealand Continence Association website.