An introduction to the life of alexander the great a king of the macedonians

Crushing the mountain tribe of the Ouxians, he now pressed on over the Zagros range into Persia proper and, successfully turning the Pass of the Persian Gates, held by the satrap Ariobarzaneshe entered Persepolis and Pasargadae.

Alexander appointed the general Antipater as regent and headed for Persia with his army.

alexander the great accomplishments

Seeing that Homer's Iliad inspired Alexander to dream of becoming a heroic warrior, Aristotle created an abridged version of the tome for Alexander to carry with him on military campaigns. Half the army with the baggage under Hephaestion and Perdiccasboth cavalry commanders, was sent through the Khyber Passwhile he himself led the rest, together with his siege train, through the hills to the north.

An introduction to the life of alexander the great a king of the macedonians

During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea , Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals. Fearing a revolt among the other city-states, Alexander leapt into action, marching his massive army—consisting of 3, cavalry and 30, infantry—southward all the way to the tip of the Greek peninsula. By the fall of , he reissued treaties with the Greek city-states that belonged to the Corinthian League—with Athens still refusing membership—and was granted full military power in the campaign against the Persian Empire. When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better bride for him. Crossing the Oxus, he sent his general Ptolemy in pursuit of Bessus, who had meanwhile been overthrown by the Sogdian Spitamenes. Athens sued for peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. By fall, Alexander and his army had made it across the southern coast of Asia Minor to Gordium, where they took the winter to rest. In , after Alexander had recovered, he and his army headed north along the rugged Persian Gulf, where many fell prey to illness, injury and death. Either way, he never named a successor. When Alexander learned about this, he was furious.

Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army for a campaign in southern Greece. Just 20 years old, Alexander claimed the Macedonian throne and killed his rivals before they could challenge his sovereignty. Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications; the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome.

As it became clear Alexander would win the Battle of Issus, Darius fled with what remained of his troops, leaving his wife and family behind.

He then laid siege to the heavily fortified island of Tyre in January B. Under siege yet not beaten, Halicarnassus held out long enough for King Darius III, the newest Persian king, to amass a substantial army.

Alexander the great biography

Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes, who both rejected it. The Thanksgiving Feast at Susa, which had been geared towards solidifying the bond between Persians and Macedonians, shaped up to be quite the opposite. At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses. In the wake of his father's death, Alexander, then 19, was determined to seize the throne by any means necessary. He founded the city of Alexandria near the western arm of the Nile on a fine site between the sea and Lake Mareotis, protected by the island of Pharos, and had it laid out by the Rhodian architect Deinocrates. The Athenians, led by Demosthenes , voted to seek alliance with Thebes against Macedonia. How much Alexander knew of India beyond the Hyphasis probably the modern Beas is uncertain; there is no conclusive proof that he had heard of the Ganges. Consolidation of the empire Alexander now proceeded farther with the policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors on which he had already embarked before leaving India. Then during a meeting of league members at Thermopylae, Alexander elicited their acceptance of his leadership. Macedonian laughter caused the experiment to founder, and Alexander abandoned it. In B. Alexander put his vigor and bravery on display, and his cavalry decimated the Band of Thebes. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force. He murdered Cleitus, one of his most-trusted commanders, in a drunken quarrel, but his excessive display of remorse led the army to pass a decree convicting Cleitus posthumously of treason. In spring Alexander marched north into Media and occupied its capital.

Inhe created the city of Alexandria, designed as a hub for Greek culture and commerce. He quickly garnered the support of the Macedonian army, including the general and troops he had had fought with at Chaeronea.

On finding the army adamantAlexander agreed to turn back. He rejected a plea from Darius for peace and took the towns of Byblos and Sidon.

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