Africa development economy essay in in philosophy political public study

Western governments also need to ease their demands on less developed countries to adopt strict, Western-style intellectual property laws. In the s and s, legal realists e.

The state must be deprivatized [from domination by the few] and a public arena must be created where there would be room for argument and discussions based on what is good for the entire society.

The lack of accountability in Africa has led to the gross misuse of public resources.

Yet the difficulty in coming to any clear agreement concerning representation was illustrated by one participant, who asked, "On what does one base federalism? Things should be argued in public terms so that everyone can participate on an equal basis. Foreign aid, noted the participants, although designed to contribute to development, also has served as an alternative source of wealth for corrupt elites. One participant called for African journalists to train younger colleagues, organize themselves into associations and trade unions, and to sponsor conferences around the issue of the press and democracy. I also think we can suggest to donors that we want a change in the form in which aid comes. For example, donors no longer should give direct monetary aid, because this can be misutilized, but could provide assistance in other ways that would ensure it is effectively utilized. There is a need for transparency in the advice donors give to African governments. We do not have to try to achieve uniformity because it is perhaps not the best thing. The lack of accountability in Africa has led to the gross misuse of public resources. Second, donor countries have tied foreign aid to domestic interest group objectives and to international power politics; they have little interest in holding recipient countries accountable for achieving anything productive with aid.

Foreign Aid and Economic Development Publicly funded foreign aid is offered in two forms: direct grants-in-aid and loans. Some critics of foreign aid programs, like Easterly, argue that such programs can be reformed to work better, while others, like Deepak Lal, argue that foreign aid is fundamentally unreformable and should, apart from emergency humanitarian relief or perhaps targeted military assistance, be scrapped.

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The Neapolitan philosopher Antonio Genovesi was the first tenured professor. Although participants acknowledged that corruption in Africa emanated from the lack of democracy and accountability, they emphasized that corruption is not unique to Africa and also may be found in liberal democratic systems.

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Only recently have donors been raising the governance issue, linking it to assistance in order to ensure that the economy and politics be liberalized. Therefore, developing countries can put themselves on the road to development with fundamental institutional reforms of that character.

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Psychology is the fulcrum on which political economy exerts its force in studying decision making not only in prices , but as the field of study whose assumptions model political economy. It will, of course mean that there is a limitation on the centralization of power in both the political and economic fields. Maier suggests that a political economy approach "interrogates economic doctrines to disclose their sociological and political premises This political influence on IMF decisions is even more pronounced in the post than the pre period. The state must be deprivatized [from domination by the few] and a public arena must be created where there would be room for argument and discussions based on what is good for the entire society. Participants noted how economic reforms have caused deep despair, unemployment, and malnutrition and have not been as successful as was originally hoped. In short, the participants agreed that decentralization could be useful in encouraging local autonomy, strengthening civil society at the grass roots level in both rural and urban areas, and providing ways for women to participate in issues of immediate local concern to them. Africa is liberalizing, but it will take time, and one must be prepared to persevere for a long haul. One participant convincingly argued, "With reference to decentralization, I would simply like to say that we have to look at things from the point of view of democratic society. Yet autonomous local governments hold out important prospects, not only in rural areas, but also in urbanized areas, such as those in South Africa. This often took the form of a shadow state, where people organized themselves to provide basic services that, in their communities, had been ignored by the state. We do not have to try to achieve uniformity because it is perhaps not the best thing. It also was pointed out that reforms of press laws will be required in a number of countries. Generally, the more press there is, the greater the difficulty government has in suppressing it. More recent and sophisticated work has supported the general thesis that countries friendly to the U.

In only one country Israel has development aid had the intended effects on growth. This is the problem as far as the issue of centralization is concerned.

Africa development economy essay in in philosophy political public study

In most African countries, corruption constitutes an important means by which individual wants and needs, especially in patronage-ridden personal regimes, can be satisfied. Although participants acknowledged that corruption in Africa emanated from the lack of democracy and accountability, they emphasized that corruption is not unique to Africa and also may be found in liberal democratic systems. Critics of foreign aid programs do not necessarily argue that every single aid program ever conceived has failed, but that, since aid usually fails, maintaining current aid programs or creating new ones is probably a bad idea. They are confidential only in lessening the level of accountability of these agencies to populations and opposition. In this bubbling up process, these groups would then try to extract necessities from the state in order to provide services. Agency for International Development took the lead in demanding policy changes, such as currency devaluation, removal of subsidies for public services, reduction of state intervention in agricultural pricing and marketing, greater concern to the development needs of rural areas, privatization of parastatal bodies, and reduction in the size and cost of the public sector. One participant called for African journalists to train younger colleagues, organize themselves into associations and trade unions, and to sponsor conferences around the issue of the press and democracy. Both concepts were related to processes in society within the context of reciprocity. A number of political scientists participating in the Namibia workshop found it necessary to point out that the concepts of democracy and governance were interrelated, but were not the same. In the three workshops, the importance of popular participation in building democratic society likewise was underscored: "The significance of ordinary people having power is important in any society moving toward democracy. They made a plea for donors to suggest steps that African countries could take that might help retrieve the stolen money deposited in foreign accounts by these public officials.

The Development Advisory Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development is on record in support of "participatory development," which includes democratization, improved governance, and human rights.

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Political economy